Not many Koori people appear to be living in the inner city, many seem to have withdrawn to Concord or Parramatta. There seem to be far fewer than twenty years earlier in the west as well.

Aboriginal child born Hedwidge Bungaree to father Joe Bungaree and mother is Rose.

Sydney Gazette 9th Jan page 3 Annual Conference with the Natives.: “The weather on the morning of Wednesday last, being rather unfavourable, the number of visitors to Parramatta, to witness the interesting scene which is annually presented at the conference held by His Excellency the Governor with the native Chiefs and tribes, was not so numerous as on former occasions. About 12 o'clock, the Governor, attended by the Hon. Alexander McLeay, the Venerable the Arch Deacon, Colonel Shadforth, Captain Dumaresque, the Rev. Samuel Marsden, the Rev. W. Cowper, the Rev. C. P. N. Wilton, the Rev. Thomas Hassall, Major Innes, Lieut. Darling, W.Lithgow, Esq. W. Lawson, Esq. Major Lockyer &C, proceeded to the Market-place, where 269 Aboriginal natives, including women and children, were assembled to partake of the usual treat of roast beef and pudding, &c, with which they were plentifully supplied, together with a reasonable quantum of grog. The ground was roped in for the occasion, and decorated with a profusion of shrubs. The chiefs of the tribes were noticed in the kindest manner by His Excellency, who placed a badge of distinction on the neck of one of them, and personally took care that their wants were supplied with everything which had been provided for the feast. At the conclusion of the repast, blankets, hats, handkerchiefs, jackets, trousers, and tobacco were plentifully distributed; and after The Governor and his immediate attendants had retired, Lieut. Darling prevailed on the blacks to indulge the spectators with a dance, or corrobora, which ended the day's amusements. Particular notice was taken of two Aboriginal native boys and a girl who were brought up in the house of the Rev. W. Walker at Parramatta, and accompanied him to the meeting. These children have made a very creditable progress in reading and writing, and are excellent house servants, a proof that the intellect of the natives is not so debased as to be incapable of cultivation if judicious measures be adopted.”

  • Reverend Samuel Marsden
  • Reverend Hassall
  • Earliest settlement, Parramatta
  • Government House, Parramatta
  • Parramatta courtesy of National Library of Australia

Aboriginal child born: Theda, father Bowen, mother Toura Maria.

Reverend Henry Stiles arrives from England and is appointed Master of the Orphan School.

  •  Reverend Henry Stiles, Master of Orphan School, 1830


Aboriginal children born: Martin Atkins father Jem, mother Betty. Joseph, father, Jack Ryal.

Maria Locke writes to Governor Darling asking him for the 3 ha of land promised when she married as well as transferring to her name some of the land granted to her brother Colebee who is now deceased.

  • Descendents of Maria Lock


Koori people are living by themselves, but often working in the colonial community, in many areas along the Hawkesbury/Nepean. Video, ‘The people of Blacktown Road’.

Darug child, Mary Thomas is born in the Black Town road camp at Freemans Reach (different from Blacktown on Richmond Road); a 1832 birth certificate names a father as Henry Styles and mother as Mary Thomas. However her marriage cert some 30 years later asserts that her parents are Maria Byrnes and Henry Thomas.  Henry Stiles is an assistant curate at St Matthew's Church of England Windsor. He becomes the Master of the Parramatta Orphan School. The Darug Byrnes family live at Bells Road, Richmond . A John Thomas (Aboriginal) is born in 1837 and is from the Cowpastures tribe in Camden area.

  • Mary Ann Reynolds, Darug descendant

William Bartle, convict, born Leeds Yorkshire 1810, marries Mary Ann Thomas who is a servant. (v. 3199/1862). On marriage, she is 38years old and he is 58 years old. They have daughter, Mary Bartle born 1868/1946 in Eastern Creek. Mary Ann had two former defacto husbands and 2 boys and 2 girls. These children were removed by the Benevolent society and then sent to the Randwick Home for destitute Children. Mary Ann and William Bartle had other children. Matilda, 1866, Martha, 1870 and William, 1871. Freeman’s Reach is closely associated with Sackville Aboriginal Reserve.

A child named Mark is born, father Bowen Bungary, mother Maria.

Henry (Nigga) Thomas is living in Windsor with his family, his brothers tease him for being the only dark son of Henry Thomas.

Fitzgerald, We Were Boys Together, Richmond and Windsor Gazette


Surveyor William Govett refers to ‘that part of the country where the Cascade Creek from the Weatherboard Inn joins the Cox River is called Godoomba’ (J. Smith, ‘New insights into Gundungurra Place names’, in H. Koch and L. Hercus, I Aboriginal Placenames, Aboriginal History and ANU EPress, 2009, p. 91).

  • The Gully, Katoomba, 2012
  • Top of Katoomba Creek

Maria Locke’s family is living on their Liverpool land, also granted by Governor Lachlan Macquarie.


The annual feasts for Koori people are discontinued by Governor Bourke. They have been a very useful way of keeping track of people by noting down their name, age, place of abode etc. Historians studying early Sydney regularly draw upon these ‘blanket lists’.

A society established in England by the Humanitarian Movement to foster the rights of Aboriginal peoples throughout the British Empire is named the Aborigines’ Protection Society.

Phoebe and John are children of Bull and Lucy, Aborigines of Kungion. Baptised 27. 1.1850 Wesleyan Windsor Circuit.

  • St Matthews Church of England - Windsor
  • Pulpit in St Matthew's

Backhouse: on the ‘South Creek Natives’: [The ‘South Creek’] people live on Charles Marsden’s property ‘Mamre’, often staying at the junction of South Creek and Eastern Creek. ‘In comparison with some other tribes, the South Creek Natives may be considered as half-domesticated, and they often assist in the agricultural operations of the settlers.”

He continues: ‘A few of the Natives...were, at one time, located upon a piece of the worst land in this part of the country, at a place, called Black Town. Here some of them raised grain, in spite of the sterility of the soil, at a time when they were unable to dispose of it.’ (Quoted, M. Martin, On Darug Land. An Aboriginal Perspective, 1988, p.80)

  • Samuel Marsden's house Mamre, his son Charles allowed Koories to camp nearby

Maclean, a native black child of Parramatta. Parents not known. Born 28. 8.1835. Baptised 5. 5.1842, St. Johns, Parramatta.


Charles Darwin, on route to Bathurst, stays on the Nepean River, meeting a band of some 20 Koories. That night “a score of the black Aborigines pass by, ‘each carrying in their accustomed manner, among them spears and other weapons. By giving a leading young man a shilling, they were easily detained, and threw their spears for my amusement. They were all partly clothed, and several could speak a little English: their countenances were good-humoured and pleasant, and they appeared far from being such utterly degraded beings as they have usually been represented. In their own arts they are admirable. A cap being fixed at 30 yards distance, they transfixed it with a spear, delivered by their throwing-stick [woomera] with the rapidity of an arrow from the bow of a practised archer. In tracking animals or men they show such wonderful sagacity; and I heard of several of their remarks which manifested considerable acuteness. They will not, however, cultivate the ground, or build houses and remain stationary, or even take the trouble of tending a flock of sheep when given to them. Darwin, pp. 435-438.

  • Charles Darwin

Billy Lynch is born in the Kanimbla Valley.

  • Billy Lynch, traditional custodian of Magalong Valley
  • King Billy Lynch elder of Kedumba


John Thomas of Cowpastures tribe is baptized. Gundungurra, vol 1-127 /no. 2567

  • Corroboree cowpastures

Mary-Ann, daughter of William Osborn of Namoi River, overseer to Charles Ezzy and an Aboriginal native woman was born on 7. 7.1837 and baptised 22. 9.1844 at Parish of St. Matthew, Windsor.


The Aborigines’ Protection Society holds its first meeting in Sydney. Sir George Gibbs, Governor, establishes The Protectorate to appoint protectors or guardians of the Aborigines especially in the frontier districts. The Protectorate lasts until 1849.

Birth of Jane Lock, daughter of Maria Locke.

  • Tombstone of Jane Locke


Lizzy, a native black child of Parramatta. Parents not known. Born 11.1.1839. Baptised 5.5.1842 at St Johns, Parramatta.

Squatters are liable to lose their license for 'malicious injury or offence committed upon or against any Aboriginal native'.

The Sydney Herald (1831-1842), 16 December p 2 Article “... a prize was adjudged to Master John ßungarie. We beg to direct the particular attention of our reader» to this fact, as it will be remembered that this lad is an Aboriginal and has been awarded a medal, for superiority in the classics.”

  • Bowen Bungaree