Topics: Sites: Historic: North Coastal

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a large family cave on Cowan Creek

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a family cave on Cowan Creek

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a family cave on Cowan Creek

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the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek on the Hawkesbury , where his Uncle Willie had a hut

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Uncle Willie ’s hut once stood, on the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek

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the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek , where his Uncle Willie had a hut

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the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek where his Uncle Willie had a hut

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Uncle Willie ’s hut was on the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek to where the old jetty was

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Aboriginal sites

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museum

Before Cook - view

Koories also produce ochre paintings of animals and handprints. In both cave and on rock platforms, totemic figures were also reproduced in soil and sand during ceremony.

Before Cook - view

Guringai speakers (some of whom called themselves by the clan names below) met the first fleet when it arrived in 1788 and they were the first Indigenous people in Australia to resist Phillip’s fleet. They inhabited the north shore of Sydney Harbour, living along the coast from Kirribilli then north to Manly up along the northern beaches to Broken Bay and as far as Wyong. Inland they extended to the Lane Cove River. The word for man or person is kuri (Koori) and kuringga , the possessive means ‘belonging to kuri’. Ngai (ng/guy) means ‘woman’. Within the language area were many tribal names such as Garigal, Gayamaygal, Gai-mariagal and Borogegal.

Before Cook - view

The Garigal (Carigal, Karigal) mentioned by the Reverend Lancelot Threlkeld, inhabited the south shore of the Hawkesbury River (Deeriban). Willemerring who speared Governor Phillip was from this clan. The Cannalgal inhabited the area of Manly Beach and the coast to Dee Why.

Before Cook - view

The Borrogegal.yuruey were recorded as living at Bradleys Head. The French artist Nicolas Petit identified a man in his drawings as Cour-rou-bari-gal a Koori from Boregegal clan.

Before Cook - view

The Kayimay ( Kayyemy ) occupied Manly Cove, Spring Cove and North Head which is called Car-rang-gel. Cammi ( Kamai ), a spear, is possible the root word of Cameragal and Kayimai. The Terramerragal were at the Lane Cove River and Turramurra is named for them. On the Lane Cove River are shell middens dating 20,000 years BP. The Gorualgal Inhabited Fig Tree Point now Northbridge. The Birrabirragal lived at Middle Head. (Smith 1992) Bennelong’s wife Barangaroo was a Cameragalleon ( leon indicating female) and was abducted from Manly Cove on Governor Phillip’s command. Bennelong was a Wangal and his clans land spreads from Balmain along the Parramatta River to Parramatta. Colby was a Cadigal from South Head to Warrane (Sydney Cove).

Before Cook - view

Koori people are camping near coastal creeks and inlets and make huge middens (piles) of discarded bones, shells and artefacts. Investigations have allowed archaeologists a glimpse of the coastal Koori diet. Bones of birds discovered in middens include shearwaters and little fairy penguins, reptiles like the diamond python, and fishbones of snapper, bream, wrasse, blue groper, catfish, flathead, shellfish, and wild seeds of the cycad Macrozamia . At a site in a rock overhang at Balmoral Beach, a boy’s tooth is found amongst the shells. Important midden sites include Great Mackerel Beach, Forty Baskets Beach, Balmoral Beach, Long Reef, Palm Beach.

1800 - view

The time has passed when the raids on the ripening cornfields are merely an alternative form of food gathering. The object of the recurrent, well planned attacks is to drive the white men off the river. New settlers taking up virgin land are attacked indiscriminately with those who had been marked down for vengeance. Four years of intermittent guerilla fighting gradually reduces the tribes along the lower Hawkesbury by 1803. (Docker 1964, p. 70)

1802 - 1803 - view

On his return, Bungaree brings the Broken Bay clan to settle in Port Jackson. He makes camp at Kirribilli.

1815 - view

Biddy Lewis later to settle at Marramarra Creek on Broken Bay, also lives from time to time at Bungaree’s Georges Head farm.

1820 - view

Joseph Lycett ex convict artist, paints “a family of aborigines taking shelter during a storm”, evidence that a flourishing community of Koories are following a traditional life – though probably still moving about their country – on the Northern Beaches.