Topics: Sites: North Coastal

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Cowan Creek

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Aboriginal sites

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the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek on the Hawkesbury , where his Uncle Willie had a hut

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museum

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Coal and Candle Creek on the Hawkesbury

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Narrabeen Lagoon

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Uncle Willie ’s hut once stood, on the north shore of Coal and Candle Creek

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Coal and Candle Creek

Before Cook - view

Koories also produce ochre paintings of animals and handprints. In both cave and on rock platforms, totemic figures were also reproduced in soil and sand during ceremony.

Before Cook - view

Guringai speakers (some of whom called themselves by the clan names below) met the first fleet when it arrived in 1788 and they were the first Indigenous people in Australia to resist Phillip’s fleet. They inhabited the north shore of Sydney Harbour, living along the coast from Kirribilli then north to Manly up along the northern beaches to Broken Bay and as far as Wyong. Inland they extended to the Lane Cove River. The word for man or person is kuri (Koori) and kuringga , the possessive means ‘belonging to kuri’. Ngai (ng/guy) means ‘woman’. Within the language area were many tribal names such as Garigal, Gayamaygal, Gai-mariagal and Borogegal.

Before Cook - view

The Garigal (Carigal, Karigal) mentioned by the Reverend Lancelot Threlkeld, inhabited the south shore of the Hawkesbury River (Deeriban). Willemerring who speared Governor Phillip was from this clan. The Cannalgal inhabited the area of Manly Beach and the coast to Dee Why.

Before Cook - view

The Borrogegal.yuruey were recorded as living at Bradleys Head. The French artist Nicolas Petit identified a man in his drawings as Cour-rou-bari-gal a Koori from Boregegal clan.

Before Cook - view

The Kayimay ( Kayyemy ) occupied Manly Cove, Spring Cove and North Head which is called Car-rang-gel. Cammi ( Kamai ), a spear, is possible the root word of Cameragal and Kayimai. The Terramerragal were at the Lane Cove River and Turramurra is named for them. On the Lane Cove River are shell middens dating 20,000 years BP. The Gorualgal Inhabited Fig Tree Point now Northbridge. The Birrabirragal lived at Middle Head. (Smith 1992) Bennelong’s wife Barangaroo was a Cameragalleon ( leon indicating female) and was abducted from Manly Cove on Governor Phillip’s command. Bennelong was a Wangal and his clans land spreads from Balmain along the Parramatta River to Parramatta. Colby was a Cadigal from South Head to Warrane (Sydney Cove).

Before Cook - view

Koori people are camping near coastal creeks and inlets and make huge middens (piles) of discarded bones, shells and artefacts. Investigations have allowed archaeologists a glimpse of the coastal Koori diet. Bones of birds discovered in middens include shearwaters and little fairy penguins, reptiles like the diamond python, and fishbones of snapper, bream, wrasse, blue groper, catfish, flathead, shellfish, and wild seeds of the cycad Macrozamia . At a site in a rock overhang at Balmoral Beach, a boy’s tooth is found amongst the shells. Important midden sites include Great Mackerel Beach, Forty Baskets Beach, Balmoral Beach, Long Reef, Palm Beach.

1788 - view

On 22 January, two cutters and a long boat sail into the harbour. Captain Arthur Phillip watches the Aboriginal men who wade into the water without their spears to examine the English boats. Phillip writes “their confidence and manly behaviour made me give the name Manly Cove to this place”. Phillip’s Instructions are to “conciliate their affections … maintain friendly relations with the natives if possible”.

1788 - view

Later in the year, Phillip sets out in 3 small vessels to explore Broken Bay. “They were met by a great number of the Natives, Men, Women and Children, the men well armed. very friendly”. In Pittwater they meet an old Koori man and a boy. The old man then helps them gather leaves for their beds. He takes off with a metal spade but the soldiers force him to return it. The man raises his spear but when the soldiers threaten him with muskets he backs down. “[T]his roused the anger of Phillip, who seemed to think that even a ‘savage’ ought to understand the rights of property, and he showed his displeasure to the thief”. (Anderson 1920, p. 22)

1789 - view

Capture of Arabanoo, a Kayeemaigal man, at Manly Cove, and on Governor Phillip’s orders. The boats proceeded to Manly Cove, where several Indians were seen standing on the beach, who were enticed by courteous behavior and a few presents to enter into conversation. A proper opportunity being presented, our people rushed in among them, and seized two men. The rest fled, but the cries of the captives soon brought them back, with many others to their rescue … only one of them was secured; the other effected his escape … an attack from the shore instantly commenced.

1794 - view

Broken Bay, first charted by Captain John Hunter in 1789, now carries regular shipping on the Hawkesbury River between Windsor and Sydney.

1800 - view

The time has passed when the raids on the ripening cornfields are merely an alternative form of food gathering. The object of the recurrent, well planned attacks is to drive the white men off the river. New settlers taking up virgin land are attacked indiscriminately with those who had been marked down for vengeance. Four years of intermittent guerilla fighting gradually reduces the tribes along the lower Hawkesbury by 1803. (Docker 1964, p. 70)

1801 - view

At the Hunter River, Bungaree joins the Koories and makes his own way southwards to his country on foot.